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Journal of Competitiveness

The Main Drivers of Competitiveness in the EU-28 Countries

Mihaela Simionescu, Elena Pelinescu, Samer Khouri, Svitlana Bilan

Klíčová slova
competitiveness, human capital, innovation, FDI, panel data model

During the past few decades, globalization has dramatically changed the context of competitiveness around the world. Considering the role of competitiveness in the development of the digital economy, this paper aims to highlight the role of innovation, foreign direct investment (FDI), and human capital in supporting competitive European economies. The research hypothesis is that FDI, innovation, and human capital contribute to competitiveness growth. The paper extends the Cobb-Douglas function by including other competitiveness factors in a panel data framework based on the EU-28 countries in the period 2004-2018. The results indicate that GDP per capita variation is explained by human and physical capital, FDI, and R&D expenditure. Human capital plays a crucial role in economic development due to the innovation skills of individuals, which improve the productivity of these factors. Capital formation also makes a positive contribution to economic growth. The empirical evidence suggests that the changes in the GDP per capita are explained by modifications in the labor force and capital formation, as is described in the traditional framework of the Cobb-Douglas function. R&D expenditure and FDI stock, however, also play a significant role. Moreover, human capital could determine the adoption of external technology by absorbing new equipment and ideas. On the other hand, the education index and capital formation showed a positive impact on GCI.

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The Main Drivers of Competitiveness in the EU-28 Countries [PDF soubor] [Velikost souboru: 1.08 MB]


Simionescu, M., Pelinescu, E., Khouri, S., & Bilan, S. (2021). The Main Drivers of Competitiveness in the EU-28 Countries. Journal of Competitiveness, 13(1), 129–145. https://doi.org/10.7441/joc.2021.01.08

Journal of Competitiveness


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ISSN 1804-171X (Print); eISSN 1804-1728 (On-line)

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